Cultivating plants started in out of the way places in the natural habitat of grains (high ground). Herding of animals stated by Pastoral Peoples over wide area. No towns in either case.

Simple Technology
City State

Small craft based manufactories develop, located in villages - fortified sites which grew into towns/cities. This

Roman Empire, and
Industrial Revolution

Large scale industrial production, which has to serve a wide geographical area. Very large agricultural estates, though also small farmers. Medieval Manors where a peasant's land holding was scattered all over the manor evolve into modern farms with farmers' land in one place. Towns & Cities grew.

Consumer Society

Specialisation, where machinery and chemicals make former waste and common land of manors cultivatable - where large farms tend to form. More land taken by cities, towns and industries.

Mass Production Society

Large population rises, and more land taken by cities and towns. Most villages swell out over the original medieval 3 field systems of the manors (best agricultural land), with the farms on the former waste and common lands - with further machinery and chemical fertilisers.

Numbers of people working on the land contracts to a few %. But much of food consumed imported from other parts of the world, a form of New World Trading Patterns seen in Manufacturing. This is interrupted by World Wars and subsidies given to Food Production. By end of period efficiency of Agriculture very high, but mountains and lakes of over food productions cause subsidies to slacken - and imports again affecting farmers' profitability.

Original medieval market towns as centres of exchange for agricultural products within a day's animal walking distance change - much larger scale agricultural distribution systems occur. The large cities had become the main manufacturing centres. But by the end of the period manufacturing is leaving the cities for smaller town sites, or the edges of cities. People also prefer to live in the country, so leaving the cities and swelling the villages and smaller towns.


The Constant Trend here involves relationship between one development and others. While there is a continual increase in the invented processes, in specialisation, and in the range of goods and services available, one development cannot occur in isolation.

Thus the city develops in symbiosis with the country. Illustrating Slide Show.

The Agricultural - Town Symbiosis in Mass Production Societies

With agricultural products going to Integrated Distributors (Super & Hyper Markets) and later to food processors, the role of the town declined steeply as a market place and distributor of food products. As safety increased (travel needed an armed escort before c 1800 - bandits rules outside the manor strong points), there was no need to site manufacturing within City walls or fortified sites (as were the early ones). Also helped by improved communications and pressure on city sites, manufacturing moved out of major cities, to edges of them, to smaller towns, or green field sites.

Thus Cities cease its prime role of market for exchange of goods and a secure site for manufacturing. Instead the City and the town become centres where: